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www.waraxe.us Forum Index -> Sql injection -> The Unexpected SQL Injection (whitepaper)
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The Unexpected SQL Injection (whitepaper)
PostPosted: Wed Sep 19, 2007 11:55 pm Reply with quote
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New interesting whitepaper from:


The Unexpected SQL Injection
(When Escaping Is Not Enough)

By Alexander Andonov ( sir(point)mordred(on)gmail )
Version 1.0
Last Modified: 9/1/2007

We will look at several scenarios under which SQL injection may occur,
even though mysql_real_escape_string() has been used. There are two
major steps at writing SQL injection resistant code: correct validation
and escaping of input and proper use of the SQL syntax. Failure to comply
with any of them may lead to compromise. Many of the specific issues are
already known, but no single document mentions them all.
Although the examples are built on PHP/MySQL, the same principles apply
to ASP/MSSQL and other combinations of languages and databases.

0. Contents
1. Introduction and rationale
2. Installation
3. Getting to mysql_real_escape_string()
4. Integer values
5. The Return of the Integer Values
6. Hi, what's your column name?
7. Do You LIKE My %WildCard%?
8. Other Databases and Other Issues
9. A Summary in Plaintext
10. About
11. References

1. Introduction and rationale

There are many papers ([1],[2],[3],[4]) and articles ([5],[6]) about
SQL injection in dynamically built SQL queries (as opposed to prepared
statements or stored procedures), and even more about how to protect
against it ([7],[8]). And yet web programmers continue to make crucial
mistakes when writing their SQL-related code; indeed there are cases
not explicitly mentioned in the popular tutorials, which have to be
handled with care. As the PHP documentation ([9]) on
mysql_real_escape_string() says: "This function must always
(with few exceptions) be used to make data safe before sending a query
to MySQL.". This article attempts to enumerate the said exceptions and
give a complete checkpoint list of protective measures. We will identify
some common points of failure and provide the right (and in some
occasions, the commonly applied wrong) solutions in hope that novice
programmers and pen-testers will learn to recognise them in their own
code should they occur.

The given examples are designed to look like some common web programming
tasks related to finding and displaying user information. On the other hand
they are somewhat artificial, in the sense that they are overly simplified.
Some of the examples of SQL injection will not work with more complex
queries (for example using ORDER BY and UNION require special parentheses
syntax which is usually hard to achieve when trying to inject SQL).
Nevertheless, if points of injection exist in your code, a well-versed
attacker will benefit from them, no matter how "hostile" to SQL injection
the surrounding query is.

We will not discuss the possible mitigation strategies for when SQL
injection occurs, such as PHP and MySQL configuration options, data
encryption, etc., but the reader is encouraged to read more on the subject.

We expect the reader to be familiar with the basics of PHP/MySQL
interaction and have at least sketchy idea of what SQL injection is.
The reference section provides some good pointers at the latter.

It must also be noted that many of the presented issues have been
separately mentioned by security researchers before, for example [14]
and [15] both state the need of quotes around values, the PHP manual ([9])
mentions the LIKE wildcards, and [16] lists both; [17] briefly advises
against using dynamic table names.

2. Installation


The article is accompanied by a collection of examples, each offering a
number of tests, which can be run on a localhost server. The practices
displayed in the examples are only recommended in their part related to
SQL injection. The rest of the code is hastily (and lazily) patched up
to "just do the job". It displays SQL errors in the HTML, doesn't escape
values taken from the database before displaying them either, and the HTML
itself is the most minimalistic ugly street HTML that would get rendered.
This is not a good example of coding style, so don't mimic it (I don't
either). This is done intentionally, as not to distract the reader from
the important code. Do try to understand and apply the measures against
SQL injection though, and if you're interested in pen-testing as well
as web programming, play with the provided injection vectors.

Open [db.inc.php] with your favourite editor and write the correct
database connection info. In the database you selected for the test,
import the [sql_injection_test.sql] file, which contains a simple table
schema with three rows of information. Load the index.php in your browser
and follow the examples as they are commented on in the article. If you
want to play with the url parameters outside of the given test cases,
click the [new] links to load the examples in new windows.


Install these scripts only on your local testing environment. If you
leave them on a publicly accessible host, they (and, depending on the
configuration, the host itself) will be exploited. You've been warned.

For the sake of self-containment, the essential snippets of code will
also be inlined in the article. The test table has the following data in it:

mysql> select * from sql_injection_test;
| userid | username | password |
| 1 | Winnie | Pooh |
| 2 | Edward | Sanders |
| 3 | Christopher | Robin |

RunQuery($query) is a utility function that displays and runs the given
query and displays either the returned error or all returned rows.

3. Getting to mysql_real_escape_string()

---------[ Example 1. (finduser.php) ]------------
$username = isset($_GET['u']) ? $_GET['u'] : '';
RunQuery("SELECT userid, username FROM sql_injection_test
WHERE username='$username'");
---------[ Tests: ]------------------------------
1. u=Winnie
2. u=Edward
3. u=Christopher
4. u=Schneier
5. u='
6. u=' OR ''='
7. u=' UNION ALL SELECT userid, CONCAT(username, ' ', password)
FROM sql_injection_test WHERE ''='

Example 1 demonstrates the most basic (wrong) way of handling dynamic
SQL queries. The url parameter 'u' is expected to contain a username,
and the first four test links demonstrate how it works with existing
and non-existing names. The fifth test, a single quote (the
"breaking quote"), is the basic test if the script is vulnerable
(or at least if it will break), and as we see our example indeed tries
to execute invalid SQL. Test 6 manipulates the query to list all possible
users instead of just one. And finally the UNION query in test 7 lists
all users along with their passwords.

---------[ Example 2. (finduser_fixed.php) ]---------
$username = isset($_GET['u']) ? $_GET['u'] : '';
$username = mysql_real_escape_string($username);
RunQuery("SELECT `userid`, `username` FROM `sql_injection_test`
WHERE `username` = '$username'");

The vulnerability here arises from the ability of the attacker to inject
a single quote, thus closing the literal string and interpreting the rest
of the user input as SQL syntax. The well known remedy to that is to
escape all variables that will be included in the dynamic query with
mysql_real_escape_string(). Example 2 shows that the same attacks no
longer work.

>From now on we will escape our parameters with mysql_real_escape_string()
and will observe how and when this fails to protect us from SQL injection.
Note that even incorrectly ([10]) escaping with functions such as
addslashes() (or the magic_quotes functionality in PHP) has similar effects.

4. Integer values

---------[ Example 3. (viewprofile.php) ]------------
$userid = isset($_GET['id']) ? $_GET['id'] : 0;
$userid = mysql_real_escape_string($userid);
RunQuery("SELECT userid, username FROM sql_injection_test WHERE userid=$userid");
---------[ Tests: ]------------------------------
1. id=0
2. id=1
3. id=2
4. id=3
5. id='
6. id=0 or 1
7. id=0 UNION ALL SELECT userid, CONCAT(username, ' ', password)
FROM sql_injection_test WHERE 1
8. id=0 UNION ALL SELECT userid, CONCAT(username, CHAR(32), password)
FROM sql_injection_test WHERE 1

Example 3 accepts a numeric parameter, userid, and displays information
about that user. The first four tests as before demonstrate how the
script is expected to behave, and the 5th test shows that even the
escaped parameter can raise an error. The trouble here is that the query
assumes that the parameter will be integer and so is written without
quotes. The attacker, though, doesn't need a "breaking quote", as
whatever he enters goes directly to the query to be interpreted as
SQL syntax. Test 6 manipulates the WHERE clause into returning all
user records. As we can see from 7, mysql_real_escape_string() prevents
the success of injected queries that include quotes. Any such query can
be rewritten in a way as not to use quotes though, so test 8 succeeds
where 7 failed.

---------[ Example 4. (viewprofile_fixed_1.php) ]------------
$userid = isset($_GET['id']) ? $_GET['id'] : 0;
$userid = mysql_real_escape_string($userid);
RunQuery("SELECT `userid`, `username` FROM `sql_injection_test`
WHERE `userid` = '$userid'");

---------[ Example 5. (viewprofile_fixed_2.php) ]------------
$userid = isset($_GET['id']) ? $_GET['id'] : 0;
userid = intval($userid);
$userid = mysql_real_escape_string($userid);
RunQuery("SELECT `userid`, `username` FROM `sql_injection_test`
WHERE `userid` = '$userid'");

There are two solutions to the problem, either use quotes in the query
as Example 4 does, or convert the input value to int. The most robust
choice is shown in Example 5, where the two solutions are combined. If
the numeric value requirement is changed at some point in the future
and the input parameter is no longer forced to be int, the query will
still be protected.

The reader must realise that input validation (in our case making sure
that what we expect to be an int is really int) and escaping the parameter
before giving it to the query are two different security steps. In this
particular case either one will suffice, but in general, for in-depth
security, you must always do both. Also, the two tasks will most probably
be carried by two different subsystems in your real-life code, so the
validating and escaping code will not be adjacent as displayed in this
simplified case. The topic is quite extensively covered by other
authors ([8]) so we will not pursue it further.

5. The Return of the Integer Values

---------[ Example 6. (members.php) ]------------
$offset = isset($_GET['o']) ? $_GET['o'] : 0;
$offset = mysql_real_escape_string($offset);
RunQuery("SELECT userid, username FROM sql_injection_test LIMIT $offset, 10");
---------[ Tests: ]------------------------------
1. o=0
2. o=1
3. o=2
4. o=3
5. o='
6. o=999999, 10 UNION ALL SELECT username, password FROM sql_injection_test LIMIT 0

Example 6 demonstrates another situation where integer values are used -
the offset and count parameters of the LIMIT clause. The script implements
a simple pagination feature - it displays a list of members in pages
of 10, accepting the starting offset in an url parameter.

Having in mind the previous examples, there is no surprise that the
"breaking quote" in the 5th test really breaks the query, and that
in the 6th test a UNION-based injection can give the attacker a list
of usernames and their associated passwords.

---------[ Example 7 (members_fixed.php) ]------------
$offset = isset($_GET['o']) ? $_GET['o'] : 0;
$offset = intval($offset);
RunQuery("SELECT `userid`, `username` FROM `sql_injection_test` LIMIT $offset, 10");

---------[ Example 8. (members_not_fixed.php) ]------------
$offset = isset($_GET['o']) ? $_GET['o'] : 0;
if (is_numeric($offset))
RunQuery("SELECT userid, username FROM sql_injection_test LIMIT $offset, 10");
---------[ Tests: ]------------------------------
7. o=0.0001
8. o=0x53514c

The difference with the previous situation is that this integer value
plays another role, syntactic-wise. The two LIMIT parameters require
integer values, so we may not use any quotes or any escaping mechanism
other than intval() (or casting to int), as in Example 7. It must be
noted that using is_numeric() (as for example old versions ([18]) of
the PHP manual advised) in the validation part of the script is not a
sufficient check, and Example 8 shows two ways to break the query
(although no malicious SQL code can be injected in this way). The second
of those, test 8, is interesting, because while it is "numeric" from
the PHP point of view, it is a string literal ('SQL') for MySQL.
This is only of academic interest in this situation though, literals
encoded in this manner and longer than four characters will not pass

The other difference between examples 3-5 and 6-8 is that in the real
world ORDER BY will most likely be used alongside the LIMIT clause.
This will cause the UNION-based injection not to work, and the developer
may decide the code is secure. This is both naive and wrong, one must
always use proper escaping before inserting values in a dynamic SQL
query, no matter what the query looks like. The next section will
explain how such "hostile" to SQL injection queries can still be
exploited and still need to get properly protected.

Another robust way to avoid these kinds of mistakes is not to specify
an 'offset' in the script parameters, but a 'page'. The script will
then have to calculate the offset based on the count of items for
each page, and give it to the query. The necessity for this calculation
makes sure that the offset will be integer when it reaches the query.

6. Hi, what's your column name?

---------[ Example 9. (members2.php) ]------------
$order = isset($_GET['o']) ? $_GET['o'] : 'userid';
$order = mysql_real_escape_string($order);
RunQuery("SELECT userid, username FROM sql_injection_test ORDER BY $order");
---------[ Tests: ]------------------------------
1. o=userid
2. o=username
3. o=password
4. o=honey_eaten
5. o='
6. o=userid ASC UNION ALL SELECT username, password FROM sql_injection_test
ORDER BY userid
7. o=IF ( (SELECT userid FROM sql_injection_test
WHERE username=0x57696e6e6965 AND password=0x506f6f68),
userid, username)
8. o=IF ( (SELECT userid FROM sql_injection_test
WHERE username=0x57696e6e6965 AND password=0x31323334),
userid, username)

So, we've seen attacks directed at PHP variables playing the roles of
string values, integer values and integer parameters to LIMIT. Sometimes
a lazy developer will want to make another part of her query dynamic:
the column names. Example 9 shows a "typical" use: we want to list all
members, and we want the user to choose a column on which to sort them.
Tests 1-3 are straightforward (although the security-minded should raise
an eyebrow at test 3 ... it uses a column name that is not in the query,
don't mind that for now). Test 4 shows what happens if the table has no
such column, test 5 shows that even though quotes are escaped, they can
still "break" the syntax of the query. Test 6 attempts to use the UNION
injection, only to find that a correct use of UNION and ORDER BY requires
parentheses around the two SELECTS that we want UNION of, which is not
possible here, because we have only a single point of injection.

So what can the attacker do? The answer is "Blind SQL injection" ([3], [4]).
Since the attacker can't use quotes, he must either use the hexadecimal
format mentioned in the previous section, or use a combination of CONCAT()
and CHAR(). Test 7 checks if there is a username 'Winnie' and password
'Pooh', and if so, orders the results by userid, if not - by username.
(This is the IF() MySQL function [19], not to be confused with the IF
statement of the stored routine syntax) Since the apparent order is by
userid, the attacker concludes that the statement he checked for is true.
Test 8 tries Winnie/1234, and since the results are ordered by username,
the fact must be wrong.

---------[ Example A. (members2_not_fixed.php) ]------------
$order = isset($_GET['o']) ? $_GET['o'] : 'userid';
$order = mysql_real_escape_string($order);
RunQuery("SELECT userid, username FROM sql_injection_test ORDER BY `$order`");
---------[ Tests: ]------------------------------
9. o=userid`,IF ( (SELECT userid FROM sql_injection_test
WHERE username=0x57696e6e6965 AND password=0x506f6f68),
BENCHMARK(300000,MD5(1)), username), `userid
10. o=userid`,IF ( (SELECT userid FROM sql_injection_test
WHERE username=0x57696e6e6965 AND password=0x31323334),
BENCHMARK(300000,MD5(1)), username), `userid

The problem here seems similar to that in Example 3 - the column name is
not properly quoted (the MySQL manual ([11]) states that "The identifier
quote character is the backtick (`)" ). Indeed the proper quoting in
Example A stops the attack vectors in tests 7 and 8. What we can't stop
is the attacker simply closing the backtick quote and injecting SQL after
the column name, as mysql_real_escape_string() does not escape backticks.
As we noted, UNION will not work after ORDER BY, so the attacker resorts
to another blind injection technique - slowing the query on condition.
On my machine test 9 takes about 3 seconds (meaning the tested condition
is true), whereas test 10 finishes with no delay.

---------[ Example B. (members2_fixed.php) ]------------
$order = isset($_GET['o']) ? $_GET['o'] : 'userid';
if (!in_array($order, Array('userid','username')))
$order = 'userid';
RunQuery("SELECT `userid`, `username` FROM `sql_injection_test`
ORDER BY `$order`");

The actual problem of the query is not just the quoting of the column
name (although it is a good style to always use proper quotes), but the
fact that user-supplied input is used as a column name. Test 4 with the
non-existent column should have been the alarm-rising factor even before
having a proof that an SQL injection is possible. Example B shows a
possible solution, where only a fixed number of options are allowed.

Note that the same applies for other identifiers and syntactic elements
that a programmer may wish to dynamically copy from the input to a query,
such as table names, column aliases, ASC/DESC keywords, etc.

7. Do You LIKE My %WildCard%?

MySQL (and other databases) has several matching operators ([12], [13])
that accept wildcard symbols or regular expressions, these are most
often used in processing search forms. What this means is that within
the SQL query we have a part (a wildcard or regexp matching sequence)
which behaves differently than the usual SQL syntax. For our tests we
will do two things. First, an additional index with length 3 is added
on the `username` field. Second, instead of returning results of the
query, we will use the EXPLAIN syntax and observe how our index is used.

---------[ Example C. (search.php) ]------------
$search = isset($_GET['s']) ? $_GET['s'] : '';
if ($search!='') {
$search = mysql_real_escape_string($search);
RunQuery("EXPLAIN SELECT userid, username FROM sql_injection_test
WHERE `username` LIKE '$search%'");
---------[ Tests: ]------------------------------
1. s=Wi
2. s=%Wi

Example C shows a typical wildcard search of usernames. Our first
test behaves as expected:

---------[ Test 1 result: ]------------------------------------------------------------------------
id select_type table type possible_keys key key_len ref rows Extra
1 SIMPLE sql_injection_test range username username 11 1 Using where

As we can see from the "possible_keys" and "key" values, our index
(named `username`) was used for determining the result set (we also notice
that "rows" is 1, meaning that the index helped MySQL narrow the search
to only one row without having to go through all rows in our table).

---------[ Test 2 result: ]------------------------------------------------------------------------
id select_type table type possible_keys key key_len ref rows Extra
1 SIMPLE sql_injection_test ALL 3 Using where

Test 2 is drastically different though - no index was used and all 3 rows
of the table have to be checked against the wildcard. The reason for that
is that a leading wildcard character (%) makes our prefix index useless,
since the string we search for may begin with any character. This happened,
because we successfully injected a %, which has a special meaning in the
context of the LIKE operator (and so is not a subject to
mysql_real_escape_string() escaping). It may not seem an issue for our 3
rows of data, but imagine a database of thousands or millions of rows
which suddenly cannot use an index, but has to go through all that data.
Depending on how the script is written, even a single user may be able
to carry out a DOS attack.

---------[ Example D. (search_fixed.php) ]------------
$search = isset($_GET['s']) ? $_GET['s'] : '';
if ($search!='') {
$search = mysql_real_escape_string($search);
$search = addcslashes($search, "%_");
RunQuery("EXPLAIN SELECT `userid`, `username` FROM `sql_injection_test`
WHERE `username` LIKE '$search%'");
---------[ Tests: ]------------------------------
1. s=Wi
2. s=%Wi
3. s=\%Wi

The solution demonstrated in Example D is to make a second escaping pass
after mysql_real_escape_string() for all variables that are replaced
within the LIKE operator. Now tests 1 and 2 behave correctly. The
addcslashes() function is handy, because it places a backslash (\) before
the given characters, and the backslash happens to be the default escape
characters for the expression on the right side of the LIKE operator.

Note that MySQL allows the choosing of another escape character
(... WHERE `username` LIKE '*%' ESCAPE '*' will match a literal %) but if
you do so, you cannot use the addcslashes() function anymore, you will
need a replacement function. In the said replacement function, you would
also need to escape the new LIKE escape character, or it could be used
for a wildcard injection (though not in the beginning of the string, so
the DOS impact would not be as big).

Test 3 demonstrates that in our case we don't need to escape the LIKE
escape character, as mysql_real_escape_string() already escaped it.

When dealing with regular expressions (REGEXP/RLIKE operator) the escaping
method cannot be as simple as addcslashes(), so a programmer who wants
to use this operator should be doubly careful how she handles user input.

8. Other Databases and Other Issues

There are features of non-MySQL databases which can also be used when
injecting SQL, which can be solved by following the same checklist,
just replace mysql_real_escape_string() with the proper database-specific
escaping functions. The PostgreSQL extension for example has
pg_escape_string(), and if there is no similar function for your database
system, you should check its documentation on how to do proper escaping.

MSSQL, PostgreSQL and maybe other databases (including MySQL with the
mysqli extension) support issuing of multiple queries in one call.
Since the syntactic character used for statement terminator, the semicolon,
is not escaped by the standard escaping functions, unquoted parameters
in the SQL query can be used to terminate the current statement and issue
another. Of course, if all parameters are properly quoted and type-forced,
the semicolon will either be stripped, or be a part of a value literal,
thus not breaking the query. MSSQL also has a reserved word, TOP, used
in a similar way as MySQL's LIMIT, whereas PostgreSQL has LIMIT/OFFSET.
The considerations of section 5 of this article should be applied when
using those.

9. A Summary in Plaintext

As we saw, mysql_real_escape_string() is a necessary, but not sufficient
measure. Here are the "checklist" rules one must follow to make sure the
dynamic SQL code is not vulnerable to SQL injection:

1. Write properly quoted SQL:
1.1. Single quotes around values (string literals and numbers)
1.2. Backtick quotes around identifiers (databases, tables, columns, aliases)
2. Properly escape the strings and numbers:
2.1. mysql_real_escape_string() for all values (string literals and numbers)
2.2. intval() for all number values and the numeric parameters of LIMIT
2.3. Escape wildcard/regexp metacharacters
(addcslashes('%_') for LIKE, and you better avoid REGEXP/RLIKE)
2.4. If identifiers (columns, tables or databases) or keywords
(such as ASC and DESC) are referenced in the script parameters,
make sure (and force) their values are chosen only as one of an
explicit set of options
2.5. No matter what validation steps you take when processing the user
input in your scripts, always do the escaping steps before
issuing the query. Validation is not a substitute for escaping!

(Hint: Did you notice how the "fixed" versions were pedantic in their use
of backticks? The author is personally convinced that it increases the
readability of the queries by making a clearer distinction between
identifiers and values. It also helps in situations where a novice
programmer tries to use a keyword for an identifier, shortening
"description" to "desc" being the most common case. Since source code
is read more times than it is written, readability is directly correlated
to security. Pedantic quoting thus has a twofold bonus when writing
secure code.)

10. About

Alexander "Mordred" Andonov is an independent security researcher and
consultant. His security interests lie in developing methodologies for
secure web programming and studying how real-world applications deal
(or fail to deal) with security problems.
He can be reached at sir(point)mordred(on)gmail.

11. References

[1] "SQL Injection: Are your web applications vulnerable?" by Kevin Spett
[2] "Advanced SQL Injection In SQL Server Applications" by Chris Anley
[3] "Blind SQL Injection: Are your web applications vulnerable?" by Kevin Spett
[4] "Blind Sql-Injection in MySQL Databases" by Zeelock
[5] "SQL Injection Cheat Sheet" by Ferruh Mavituna
[6] "SQL Injection Cheat Sheet" by David Kierznowski
[7] "PHP Manual :: SQL Injection"
[8] "Security Corner: SQL Injection" by Chris Shiflett
[9] "PHP Manual :: mysql_real_escape_string()"
[10] "addslashes() Versus mysql_real_escape_string()" by Chris Shiflett
[11] "MySQL Reference Manual :: Identifiers"
[12] "MySQL Reference Manual :: String Comparison Functions :: LIKE"
[13] "MySQL Reference Manual :: Regular Expressions :: REGEXP / RLIKE"
[14] "PHP Security Guide" by Chris Shiflett
[15] "SQL Injection Attacks" by Prof. Jim Whitehead
[16] "Guide to PHP Security: Chapter 3. SQL Injection" by Ilia Alshanetsky
[17] "OWASP :: Avoiding SQL Injection"
[18] "PHP Manual :: mysql_real_escape_string()", web archive copy from Dec 2005
[19] "MySQL Reference Manual :: Control Flow Functions :: IF()"

The current copy of this document can be here:

Information on the Web Application Security Consortium's Article Guidelines can be found here:

A copy of the *license* for this document can be found here:
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SQL Injection
PostPosted: Tue Apr 17, 2012 12:41 pm Reply with quote
Joined: Apr 17, 2012
Posts: 3

Hi all,
here is the link to the teaser of Hakin9 Magazine and this is the speacial issue connected with the SQL Injection
if you are interested, to download it you have to register on free account.
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The Unexpected SQL Injection (whitepaper)
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